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In construction, a building or structure is waterproofed with the use of membranes and coatings to protect contents underneath or within as well as protecting structural integrity. The waterproofing of the building envelope in construction specifications is listed under '07 - Thermal and Moisture Protection' within MasterFormat 2004, by the Construction Specifications Institute, and includes roofing material as well as waterproofing materials. Waterproofing is used in reference to building structures such as basements, decks, wet areas, and etc. Waterproofing should not be confused with roofing, as roofing cannot withstand hydrostatic head, and waterproofing can.

In building construction, a structure needs waterproofing since concrete itself will not be watertight on its own (but note concrete is easily waterproofed with additives). The conventional system of waterproofing involves 'membranes'. This relies on the application of one or more layers of membrane (available in various materials: e.g., bitumen, silicate, PVC, EPDM etc.) that act as a barrier between the water and the building structure, preventing the passage of water. However, the membrane system relies on exacting application, presenting difficulties. Problems with application or adherence to the substrate can lead to leakage. In the UK these membranes are rarely allowed below ground below the water table. Over the past two decades, the construction industry has had technological advances in waterproofing materials, including integral waterproofing systems as well as more advanced membrane materials. Integral systems work within the matrix of a concrete structure, giving the concrete itself a waterproof quality. There are two main types of integral waterproofing systems: the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic systems. A hydrophilic system typically uses a crystallization technology that replaces the water in the concrete with insoluble crystals. Various brands available in the market claim similar properties, but not all can react with a wide range of cement hydration by-products, and thus require caution. Hydrophobic systems use fatty acids to block pores within the concrete, preventing water passage. New membrane materials seek to overcome shortcomings in older methods like PVC and HDPE. Generally, new technology in waterproof membranes relies on polymer based materials that are extremely adhesive to create a seamless barrier around the outside of a structure.

Basement waterproofing once completed becomes very difficult since the water pressure is from the negative side (from outside coming inside), the difficulty arises when a membrane cannot withstand hydrostatic pressure from within the substrate and therefore fails. Water may enter a basement through various means including through joints, walls, or floors. Various basement waterproofing systems address these problems. There are many systems available of varying cost, effectiveness, and installation invasiveness. Specially used membranes in this field are protection board sheets. Basement waterproofing may be done internally and externally. Because basement foundations can be brick, block, concrete, and even wood, it is important to pick the right waterproofing system for the right foundation. One effective way to waterproof cracks in poured concrete walls is by epoxy injection.
Application – Membrane
A membrane is a layer of material which serves as a selective barrier between two phases and remains impermeable to specific particles, molecules, or substances when exposed to the action of a driving force. Some components are allowed passage by the membrane into a permeate stream, whereas others are retained by it and accumulate in the retentate stream. Membranes can be of various thicknesses, with homogeneous or heterogeneous structure. Membrane can also be classified according to their pore diameter. Membranes can be neutral or charged, and particles transport can be active or passive. The latter can be facilitated by pressure, concentration, chemical or electrical gradients of the membrane process. Membranes can be generally classified into three groups: inorganic, polymeric or biological membranes. These three types of membranes differ significantly in their structure and functionality.
Application –  Coating
Coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. In many cases coatings are applied to improve surface properties of the substrate, such as appearance, adhesion, wet ability, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and scratch resistance. In other cases, in particular in printing processes and semiconductor device fabrication (where the substrate is a wafer), the coating forms an essential part of the finished product. Coatings may be applied as liquids, gases or solids. Coatings can be measured and tested for proper opacity and film thickness by using a Drawdown card.

Application – Poly-Urethane Injection
Most concrete leaks have one thing in common—they can be stopped with the strategic use of polyurethane grouts. These grouts stop leaks by forming expansive, closed cell foams when they contact water and then adhere to concrete surfaces. There are a variety of unique problems that exist on each project, but with experience, innovation, the right product, and the right equipment the leaks are stopped. Injections of polyurethanes have stopped costly and damaging leaks in concrete reservoirs (above and below grade, potable and no potable), parking garages, concrete dams, earthen dams, manholes, honeycombed concrete, elevator pits, pipe intrusions, seawalls, tunnels, expansion joints, basements, swimming pools, and etc. Injecting polyurethane can stop leaks, fill voids, provide structural support, and stabilize soils. This is a cost-effective way of restoring concrete and stopping the deterioration that moisture can cause to steel reinforcement. The application methods are varied, but each is minimally intrusive.